Published on: October 2023 

Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice,2023; 16(4):328-333   

Opinion | doi :10.5530/ijopp.16.4.56 

Biona Benny1, Jisha George1, Riya Joyson1, Neha Berchmans1, Siby Joseph1,*, Binu Upendran2

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, St. Joseph’s College of Pharmacy, Cherthala, Kerala, INDIA.

2Department of Nephrology, Lourdes Hospital Post Graduate Institute of Medical Science and Research, Kochi, Kerala, INDIA.


Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a growing global burden that presents a myriad of complications and is a leading cause of mortality. There are limited studies from India on prognosis of CKD. Our aim was to identify the risk factors associated with CKD prognosis and to determine the average time taken for progression to End Stage Renal Disease or Renal Replacement Therapy from mild or moderate stages with different risk factors. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study based on patient data over a period of six years (2015-2020). Patients diagnosed with CKD admitted under Nephrology department were included while those with cancer or autoimmune disorders were excluded. Results: Among 103 patients’ data analysed comprising of adult population 71%, there was a male preponderance of 69%, and 62.14% of patients were in CKD stages 4 and 5. A comparison of the first and latest visit showed a significant association for BMI, hemoglobin, uric acid, urine albumin, and serum creatinine. The average time taken for progression from stage 2 to 5 of CKD was 49.5 months, stage 3 to 5 was 33.95 months and stage 4 to 5 were 24.54 months. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity. Conclusion: With the prognosis of CKD being definitive and the time taken for ESRD shortens as the patient reaches higher stages, paramount efforts to delay progression and a need for patient-centred care in the early stages are undeniable.

Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease, Risk Factors, Average Time for Progression.