Published on: October 2022

Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2022; 15(4):263-268

Original Article | doi:10.5530/ijopp.15.4.48


Goutham Retheesh*, Beenu Maria Joseph, Kavya Surendran, Jobin Kunjumon Vilapurathu

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Muvattupuzha, Kerala, INDIA.


Since the incidence of adverse events associated with the use of class of diuretics, named loop diuretics are increasing per subject, this study was found to be significant. The aim or hypothesis of the study was to monitor the associated complications like Arrhythmia, hyponatremia or Renal dysfunction and to study about the side effect profile of loop diuretics used in the treatment of ADHF/LVF patients; both adverse events and adverse drug effects. The study is a Single-Centered, Retrospective Observational Study and was designed in the Cardiology and Nephrology Departments of a tertiary care hospital. Data were collected from the medical records. Then those were analysed in detail as well as statistically for obtaining and intervening the results. Hypokalemia, Hyponatremia, Renal dysfunction, Cardiorenal dysregulation etc. were the major complications. About the adverse event, Arrhythmia occurred in 97 patients (38.04%), 115 patients (45.10%) resulted in Hyponatremia and acute Kidney Injury has occurred in 43(16.86%) of patients. Regarding adverse drug reactions as a result of diuretic use can be classified as allergic rashes, abdominal discomfort, edema, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, muscle spasm, restlessness. The most common adverse event observed was allergic rashes 24 (58.54%) followed by abdominal discomfort 5 (12.20%). The study reveals that states that non-potassium sparing diuretics have an increased risk of adverse event associated death in HF patients whereas, potassium supplementation improved the outcomes.

Keywords: Adverse events, Complications, ADHF/LVF patients, Hypokalemia, Loop diuretics.