Published on:October 2022

Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2022; 15(4):308-314

Original Article | doi:10.5530/ijopp.15.4.55


Roland Nnaemeka Okoro1,*, Erick Wesley Hedima2, Siyaka Abdullateef1, Chinelo Nneka Aguiyi-Ikeanyi3, Steward Mudenda4

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Borno, NIGERIA.

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gombe State University, Gombe, NIGERIA.

3Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, NIGERIA.

4Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, ZAMBIA.


Background: Professions and occupations are distinguished by ethical obligations and guidelines. The objectives of the study were to assess the ethical principles knowledge and perceived ethical practices of community and hospital pharmacists in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among the community and hospital pharmacists in Nigeria. A validated web-based instrument was used for data collection. Study data were initially summarized using descriptive statistics, while ethical principles’ knowledge levels of the community and hospital pharmacists were compared using the Pearson chi-square test. A statistically significant level was set at p < 0.05. Results: Of 300 pharmacists that were approached, 245 completed the survey (response rate = 81.7%). The overall mean knowledge score of the respondents is 2.68 ± 1.49 out of a maximum score of 7 points. Over half (68.2%) of the respondents were accessed for ethical information at their pharmacies, while only 3.3% documented ethical concerns very often. Conclusion: This survey revealed poor knowledge of ethical principles among the respondents. Documentation of ethical concerns was also very poor. Therefore, educational and workplace reorganizational interventions are recommended to promote high-quality pharmaceutical care delivery.

Keywords: Community pharmacists, Hospital pharmacists, Nigeria, Ethics, Pharmacy practice.